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Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are used very often in modern life. In the internet we find many links, which say about its use. We have great advantage that we could create, using fundamental laws of physics, the equipment capable correctly and precisely to understand "language" of required substances.

Fundamental provisions of remote technology of earth sounding

The physicists know well that in the physics of the atomic nucleus the data about magnetic and electrical moments are of special importance.

According to the works of the academician E. Zavadsky (1946), all nuclei with spins that are not equal to zero have the magnetic moment μ1, which is connected with the spin of this nucleus J, nuclear magneton – μ nucl and proportional to gyromagnetic relation –g1:

μ1 = g1 · J · μ nucl;

The gyromagnetic relation g1 is a constant magnitude and is equal to ratio of nuclear magnetic moment to the nuclear angular moment.

If we bring the atomic nucleus with spin J and moment μ1 to the magnetic field with intensity Н, then we can see magnetic interaction, and the energy of interaction of magnetic moment of the nucleus with the field Wm will be proportional to H:

Wm= μ1 · H ·(m/ J);

where m is the projection of the vector J to the direction of intensity of the magnetic field. I.e., the energy of interaction is proportional to the intensity of the magnetic field.

According to the quantum mechanics, several energetic (quantum) levels of nucleus energy are possible, and the difference of values of 2 adjacent energetic levels will be equal to:

∆ Wm= g1 · μ nucl · H ;

Then the frequency corresponding to this energy will be called Larmor’s frequency:

л = ∆Wm ∕ h;

where h is Planck's constant.

Consequently, for magnetic fields with intensity Н = 100 gauss, which is easily available in laboratory conditions, Larmor’s frequency (resonance frequency) will make 1 х 108 sec-1 , which corresponds to wavelength 1 х 102 cm (metric radio-waves), as g1 =1 for typical atomic nuclei.

If we place the sample body to the constant orienting magnetic field Н (the spins will be oriented along the magnetic field) and simultaneously apply variable rotating magnetic field Нvar, but perpendicular to the orienting nucleus of the field – Н, then at the frequency of the variable field equal to Larmor’s frequency fL, we can observe resonant absorption and resonance scattering of the energy by the sample body.

Thus, having recorded resonance frequencies for each substance in nuclear magnetic resonance facility and then influence the examined substance by the generator with such a frequency, then by presence of resonance phenomena it is possible to judge about presence of the searched body in the depths of the earth. Only in case when the modulated signal of the generator hits the searched substance, a perturbation action to the receiving device of the vector magnetic field of this substance occurs.

At presence of narrow-beam microwave radiation signal it is possible to determine the direction to the object with the searched substance, and by the angle of slope of the antenna it is possible to calculate the depth of location of the object underground (underwater).

Corresponding transmit-receiving apparatus, microwave generators, as well as signal treatment programs, holographic treatment and special chemical treatment of the photographs were worked out by the team of scientists.

Proposed remote technology of search and contouring of ore deposits is based on the complex use of earth sounding apparatus with use of lower-power microwave generators and laser devices for readout of typical information-and-energy spectrums of polymetallic ores from satellite photographs. At special treatment of photographs in the radiation fields the deposit (polymetals, hydrocarbons and other substances) boundaries are visualized when they are placed into the rotating magnetic field (Kirlian effect). Space photographic reconnaissance increases rapidity of execution of works due to coverage of larger territories for search.

Subsequent sounding in the territory of discovered deposit area up to the depth of 5000 m with help of test microwave radiations allows carrying out closure of deposit contours on the earth surface to the map of the area, defining the following quantitative and qualitative characteristics of deposits:

- the type of deposit or object;

- coordinates of boundaries of deposit contours (hydrocarbons, polymetals);

depths of bedding and thickness of each horizon;

- environmental pressure and temperature in each horizon of the deposit;

- presence of waterproof horizons over or under the deposit, direction of motion of natural water streams, their salinity, temperature, pressure and depth of bedding;

- the contours of underground profiles of the deposit, oil lenses, oil and gas domes, motion of hydrocarbons underground;

- presence of admixtures in hydrocarbons (hydrogen sulfide, petrolatum and others) or concentration of polymetals in ore deposits.

By these characteristics received in field conditions, depth profiles of deposits are built, volumes of resources are defined, and points for industrial drilling for efficient exploitation of resources are selected.

Director of IGPE Oleksandr Tarnovskyi


Additional links:

Stanford University. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Appl, Magn. Reson. 5,399-406 (1993). Modulation Effects in Non-Drilling NMR in the Earth's Field. D.V. Trushkin, O.A. Shushakov and A.V. Legchenko

China University of Petroleum. Mobile NMR for geophysical analysis and materials testing

And many others...

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